UX research
UX research is a practice of observation of a user’s interaction with the object in question to find insights and spot the weak links. 
Research Goals
Choosing the right approach is key to finding a comprehensive answer to your question. Though, some sophisticated tasks may require a combination of methods to get the optimal result.
Over time I came up with the general approach: I divide my goals into two groups and use particular methods depending on the circumstance. The first condition is whether I have access to actual users of the product I’m working on or not. The second condition is the feature itself: is it a single interaction or a loop? Is the feedback immediate or delayed in time?
research methods
Research methods by goals and conditions
"Testing fast and cheap" series on medium